What does latrotoxin do to muscles?
Binding of α-latrotoxin to neuronal receptors results in massive release of acetylcholine (ACh) at the neuromuscular junction, resulting in profound muscle contraction. The symptoms of toxicosis relate to this neuromuscular activity and include muscle spasms, muscle pain, and abdominal rigidity.
What does latrotoxin release?
At high concentrations, α-latrotoxin possesses a cytolytic activity, and causes leakage of small molecules such as ATP or d-aspartate from the cytoplasm, a characteristic feature of many pore-forming, membrane-active proteins (McMahon et al., 1990; Deri et al., 1993).
Where is latrotoxin active?
A latrotoxin is a high-molecular mass neurotoxin found in the venom of spiders of the genus Latrodectus (widow spiders) and also found in the venom of spider species, Steatoda nobilis. Latrotoxins are the main active components of the venom and are responsible for the symptoms of latrodectism.
How does latrotoxin affect synapse?
On receptor binding, α-latrotoxin stimulates synaptic and neuroendocrine exocytosis by two independent mechanisms: A Ca2+-independent mechanism that only operates in synapses, and a Ca2+-dependent mechanism that works not only in synapses, but also in neuroendocrine cells (Gorio et al., 1978; Rosenthal et al., 1990; …
How does latrotoxin the venom of the black widow spider cause muscle spasms and rigidity?
Unique to the widows is latrotoxin. The venom acts on nerves causing the massive release of the neurotransmitters acetylcholine, norepinephrine, and GABA. The release of these neurotransmitters leads to pain, cramps, sweating and fast pulse.
How does black widow venom affect the muscles?
Black widow venom hijacks the victim’s nervous system. Hour 1: The thighs, back, and shoulders are usually the first muscles to suffer stronger spasms. The venom causes the nervous system to dump all of its neurotransmitters.
What is Alpha latrotoxin used for?
Latrotoxins have been used to study the molecular mechanisms of neurotransmitter exocytosis in vertebrates, insects, and crustaceans. α-Latrotoxin is by far the most studied toxin since it is the only one that stimulates neurosecretion from neurons and neuroendocrine cells of vertebrates.
What is black widow venom made of?
To date, black widow spider venom has been found to contain seven proteins with neurotoxic activity. There are five insectotoxins: α, β, γ, δ, and ε-LIT, with respective molecular masses of 120, 140, 120, 110 and 110 kDa, one latrocrustatoxin, α-LCT (120 kDa), and one vertebrate toxin, α-LTX (130 kDa).
What are black widow bite symptoms?
Signs and symptoms of a widow spider bite can include:
- Redness, pain and swelling. You might have pain and swelling around the bite, which can spread into your abdomen, back or chest.
- Nausea, vomiting, tremors or sweating.
Why do black widows bite calcium?
Although calcium gluconate usually has been considered the first-line treatment of severe envenomations by black widow spiders, we found it ineffective for pain relief compared with a combination of IV opioids and benzodiazepines.
Is Botox made from spider venom?
No, botulinum toxin is a synthetically produced substance. Originally, Botox is a botulin (sausage) toxin that develops in sausage cans kept for too long.
What are the active components of latrotoxin?
Latrotoxin. Latrotoxins are the main active components of the venom and are responsible for the symptoms of latrodectism . The following latrotoxins have been described: five insecticidal toxins, termed α, β, γ, δ and ε-latroinsectotoxins, one vertebrate-specific neurotoxin, alpha-latrotoxin, and one toxin affecting crustaceans, α-latrocrustatoxin.
What is the best latrotoxin?
Latrotoxin. The best-studied latrotoxin is alpha-latrotoxin, which acts presynaptically to release neurotransmitters (including acetylcholine) from sensory and motor neurons, as well as on endocrine cells (to release insulin, for example). It is a ~130 kDa protein that exists mainly in its dimerized or tetramerized forms. α-Latrotoxin…
What is α-Latrotoxin (α-LTX)?
α-Latrotoxin (α-LTX) can naturally be found in widow spiders of the genus Latrodectus. The most widely known of those spiders are the black widows, Latrodectus mactans. The venom of widow spiders (Latrodectus) contains several protein toxins, called latrotoxins, which selectively target against either vertebrates, insects or crustaceans.