What is a mitotic kinase?
The main mitotic kinase is Cdk1. Activation of mammalian Cdk1 depends on dephosphorylation by Cdc25. Cdk1–cyclin complexes then phosphorylate numerous substrates necessary for nuclear envelope breakdown, centrosome separation, spindle assembly, chromosome condensation and Golgi fragmentation.
What is PKC involved in?
Protein kinase C (PKC) form a key family of enzymes involved in signalling pathways that specifically phosphorylates substrates at serine/threonine residues. Phosphorylation by PKC is important in regulating a variety of cellular events such as cell proliferation and the regulation of gene expression.
What are the functions of the kinases?
Kinases are used extensively to transmit signals and regulate complex processes in cells. Phosphorylation of molecules can enhance or inhibit their activity and modulate their ability to interact with other molecules.
How is PKC regulated?
PKC, originally identified as the target of the tumor promoter phorbol ester, is a cyclic nucleotide-independent protein kinase regulated by the direct binding of DAG and calcium, two second messengers produced by the activation of PLC.
What are the mechanisms that regulate the activity of cyclin dependent kinases?
The four major mechanisms of CDK regulation are cyclin binding, CAK phosphorylation, regulatory inhibitory phosphorylation, and binding of CDK inhibitory subunits (CKIs).
What is PKC signaling pathway?
Phospholipase C (PLC) is a class of membrane-associated enzymes that cleave phospholipids just before the phosphate group (see figure). It is most commonly taken to be synonymous with the human forms of this enzyme, which play an important role in eukaryotic cell physiology, in particular signal transduction pathways.
How do kinases create signals?
Signaling kinases often induce a cascade that results in the phosphorylation of several proteins or molecules within the cell. These cascades alter cellular function. Thus, these proteins ‘signal’ changes in cells.
How does PKC get activated?
PKC enzymes in turn are activated by signals such as increases in the concentration of diacylglycerol (DAG) or calcium ions (Ca2+).