What type of microbe is yellow fever?
Yellow fever (YF) is an African mosquito-borne infection of primates. It is caused by a virus of the Flavivirus genus of the Flaviviridae family. In its natural habitat, it is transmitted between monkeys by forest-dwelling primatophilic Aedes mosquitoes. The virus and its vector (Ae.
Is yellow fever caused by microbes?
Yellow fever is caused by a virus that is spread by the Aedes aegypti mosquito. These mosquitoes thrive in and near human habitations where they breed in even the cleanest water. Most cases of yellow fever occur in sub-Saharan Africa and tropical South America.
Which microorganisms causes yellow fever and dengue?
YF virus is a member of the Flavivirus genus and is related to other mosquito-borne viruses including dengue, West Nile, and Japanese encephalitis viruses. YF disease occurs now only in Africa and Central and South America, though historically large outbreaks occurred in Europe and North America.
Why is yellow fever reemerging?
Despite mass vaccination campaigns to prevent and control these outbreaks, the risk of major YF epidemics, especially in densely populated, poor urban settings, both in Africa and South America, has greatly increased. Consequently, YF is considered an emerging, or reemerging disease of considerable importance.
Is yellow fever caused by mosquitoes?
The yellow fever virus is found in tropical and subtropical areas of Africa and South America. The virus is spread to people by the bite of an infected mosquito. Yellow fever is a very rare cause of illness in U.S. travelers.
Is cholera a virus or bacteria?
Cholera is an acute diarrheal illness caused by infection of the intestine with Vibrio cholerae bacteria. People can get sick when they swallow food or water contaminated with cholera bacteria. The infection is often mild or without symptoms, but can sometimes be severe and life-threatening.
What is Kokobera virus?
Kokobera is an uncommonly reported infection in humans, with only 3 confirmed cases in Australia between 2010-11. KOKV predominantly causes acute polyarticular manifestations2. This is the first reported case of encephalitis and myelitis due to Kokobera virus. Diagnostic uncertainty remains in our case.
What are the hosts of yellow fever?
The yellow fever virus is transmitted between human and nonhuman primate hosts by mosquitoes in 3 cycles: the sylvatic (jungle) cycle in which mosquitoes of the forest canopy transmit virus to monkeys and secondarily to humans entering the jungle; the intermediate cycle (or zone of emergence) in which virus enters …