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Why platinum is used in anticancer drugs?

Why platinum is used in anticancer drugs?

Cisplatin, carboplatin and oxaliplatin are platinum-based drugs that are widely used in cancer chemotherapy. Platinum–DNA adducts, which are formed following uptake of the drug into the nucleus of cells, activate several cellular processes that mediate the cytotoxicity of these platinum drugs.

Is platinum a chemotherapy?

Platinum-based agents are important drugs or drug candidates for cancer chemotherapy. Traditional platinum drugs including the globally approved cisplatin, carboplatin and oxaliplatin are neutral platinum (II) complexes with two amine ligands and two additional ligands that can be aquated for further binding with DNA.

How does platinum therapy work?

Drugs like cisplatin work by attaching to the DNA – the cells respond by trying to unstick cisplatin from the DNA. At a certain point, the cells give up on trying to unstick cisplatin and initiate a process to destroy the damaged cells instead.

How do you increase cisplatin?

Phytochemicals are naturally occurring plant-based compounds that can augment the anti-cancer activity of cisplatin, with minimal side effects. Notably, some novel phytochemicals, such as curcumin, not only increase the efficacy of cisplatin but also decrease toxicity induced by cisplatin.

Why oxaliplatin is preferred over cisplatin?

Conclusions: Oxaliplatin-based regimen is superior to cisplatin-based regimen in tumour remission as first-line chemotherapy for advanced GC, and is associated with less toxicity and better tolerability.

Which chemo drugs are platinum-based?

Platinum-based anticancer drugs, including cisplatin, carboplatin, oxaliplatin, nedaplatin, and lobaplatin, are heavily applied in chemotherapy regimens. However, the intrinsic or acquired resistance severely limit the clinical application of platinum-based treatment.

What cancers are treated with platinum?

The platinum compounds are largely used in the treatment of lung, breast, ovarian, and colon cancers. The chemotherapeutic mechanism of platinum compounds is typical of DNA-binding alkylating agents. If the DNA damage exceeds the ability of the cell to repair, the cell undergoes apoptotic cell death.

What are the side effects of platinum-based chemotherapy?

Other common and well-known side effects of platinum-based chemotherapy include nausea, vomiting, diarrhoea, stomatitis (inflammation of mouth and lips) pain, mucositis (painful inflammation and ulceration of mucous membranes lining the digestive tract), alopecia (hair loss), anorexia (loss of appetite), cachexia (loss …

How effective is platinum chemotherapy?

Pooled data from randomized trials demonstrated a statistically significant increase in both cORR (odds ratio = 5.3; 95% confidence interval, 1.89-14.92) and sORR (odds ratio = 2.07; 95% confidence interval, 1.33-3.22) when adding platinum compounds to chemotherapy.

What does cisplatin do to kidneys?

In addition, cisplatin may cause renal vasoconstriction through injury on the renal vasculature, which reduces blood flow, causing ischemic damage to the kidney and affects the glomerular filtration rate. Finally, a series of adverse reactions trigger acute renal failure.

Can cisplatin cause permanent kidney damage?

Patients who receive a single dose of cisplatin may suffer from reversible kidney injury, while large doses or multiple courses of treatment may cause irreversible renal failure [9].

What is the difference between oxaliplatin and cisplatin?

Oxaliplatin has been shown to be at least as effective as cisplatin for this disease, but with less toxicity and a better tolerability profile, especially for older patients.

Is phenanthriplatin a covalent adduct?

The monofunctional platinum anticancer agent phenanthriplatin generates covalent adducts with the purine bases guanine and adenine. Preferential nucleotide binding was investigated using a polymerase stop assay and linear DNA amplification with a 163-base pair DNA double helix.

Does phenanthriplatin react more rapidly with 9-methyladenine or 9-methylguanine?

Finally, a kinetic analysis indicated that phenanthriplatin reacts more rapidly by a factor of eight with 9-methylguanine than with 9-methyladenine, suggesting that the distribution of lesions formed on double-stranded DNA is kinetically controlled.

What is the structure of the phenanthridine disorder?

The structure is disordered with the phenanthridine ring assuming two different orientations with respect to the 9-methyladenine ligand. The latter is also disordered but maintains the same planar chirality about the Pt–NAdebond in the two portions of the disorder (Figure 3).