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What are endophytic mushrooms?

What are endophytic mushrooms?

Endophytic fungi (EF) are a group of fascinating host-associated fungal communities that colonize the intercellular or intracellular spaces of host tissues, providing beneficial effects to their hosts while gaining advantages.

What have some endophytes been used for by humans?

Endophytic fungi produce some of the most broadly used antibiotic and anticancer drugs. Penicillenols, extracted from Penicillium sp., is cytotoxic to numerous cell lines. Taxol, isolated from Taxomyces andreanae, is the most effective and successful anticancer drug extracted from endophytic fungi to date.

What are plant endophytes?

Endophytes are organisms, often fungi and bacteria, that live between living plant cells. The relationship that they establish with the plant varies from symbiotic to bordering on pathogenic.

How do you isolate endophytic fungi from plants?

Briefly, for isolation of endophytic fungi, healthy leaves were washed thoroughly with tap water followed by washing with 10% mild bio-detergent and finally with double distilled water to remove the surface debris.

What is the importance of endophytic fungi?

The roles of endophyte fungi are shown in various fields such as producing (A) antibiotics against many microbes, (B) mycotoxins, (C) anticancer, (D) insecticides, (E) enzymes, and (F) many compounds used in different fields.

What is endophytic mycorrhiza?

Mycorrhiza” describes a type of fungus that has a mutualistic relationship with plant roots. While , “Endophyte” describes a fungus that lives within above-ground healthy plant tissue and doesn’t seem to harm it.

Are endophytes harmful?

Over the years, endophytes have been perceived poorly because of their potential toxicity to animals. However, not all endophytes are bad. Research has identified endophyte strains that benefit the plant without being harmful to livestock. These endophytes are known as novel, selected, or livestock friendly.

Why endophytic fungi are important?

Endophytic fungi are very diverse in the medicinal plant and very helpful for medicinal plants by enhancing (1) producing the different compounds and enzymes, as the source for natural compounds useful to manufacture biopesticides, (2) enhancing the plant growth, (3) controlling and protecting from infecting with plant …

How is endophytic fungi extracted?

Methods. Endophytic fungi were isolated from the leaves of selected plants via surface sterilization. Isolated fungi were identified by internal transcribed spacer (ITS-rDNA) sequence analysis. Pure fungal strains were subjected to fermentation process on solid rice medium and metabolites extracted using ethyl-acetate.

How do you identify endophytic fungi?

The esieast way to identify endophytic fungi is amplification of ribosomal regions specially internal transcribed spacers(ITS) regions and sequence them then BLAST via NCBI . It will help you to determine genus and species with high validity , but finally you should check their descriptions too.

Where are endophytic fungi found?

plant tissues
Endophytic fungi live inside of plant tissues but don’t cause any disease symptoms. They are found in all plant species including deciduous trees, shrubs, marine algae, mosses, lichens, ferns, grasses and palms.

What is endophytic fungi PDF?

Fungal endophytes are micro-organisms that colonize healthy plant tissues without causing disease symptoms. They are described as plant growth and disease resistance promoters and have shown antimicrobial activity. The spatial-temporal distribution of endophytic communities in olive cultivars has been poorly explored.