What are the two biggest characteristics of the Uruk period?
During the Uruk Period large existing settlements developed the hallmark characteristics of urban settlements, elaborate ritual centres within key cities, the development of writing systems, extensive administrative systems, the mass production of pottery and other goods, and sophisticated art.
When did Uruk originate?
Uruk was one of the most important cities (at one time, the most important) in ancient Mesopotamia. According to the Sumerian King List, it was founded by King Enmerkar sometime around 4500 BCE.
How old is the city Uruk?
Uruk was the first major city in Sumer built in the 5th century BC, and is considered one of the largest Sumerian settlements and most important religious centers in Mesopotamia. It was continuously inhabited from about 5000 BC up to the 5th century AD.
What is city of Uruk today?
The remains of the city of Uruk lie today in a dusty, featureless desert, several kilometres east of the River Euphrates in southern Iraq. Five thousand years ago, however, it was surrounded by freshwater reed marshes, fertile alluvial soil, and waterways giving access to neighbouring towns and the Persian Gulf.
How was Uruk advanced?
Between approximately 3600 and 2600 BCE, the people of Uruk created the innovations characteristic of cities ever since: social hierarchies, specialized occupations, coercive political structures, writing, religion and literature, and monumental architecture.
Which kind of city was Uruk?
Uruk, also known as Warka or Warkah, was an ancient city of Sumer (and later of Babylonia) situated east of the present bed of the Euphrates River on the dried-up ancient channel of the Euphrates 30 km (19 mi) east of modern Samawah, Al-Muthannā, Iraq. Uruk is the type site for the Uruk period.
How long did Uruk last?
Uruk period This period of 800 years saw a shift from small, agricultural villages to a larger urban center with a full-time bureaucracy, military, and stratified society. Although other settlements coexisted with Uruk, they were generally about 10 hectares while Uruk was significantly larger and more complex.
Is Uruk the oldest city in the world?
Estimates of Uruk’s population vary wildly, but, by around 4900 years ago, it is thought to have housed more than 60,000 people, making it one of the oldest cities in the world. Its communal works included temples and canals for irrigation.
Who was the first king of Uruk?
First rulers of Uruk
|Ruler||Epithet||Length of reign|
|Gilgamesh||“whose father was a phantom (?), the lord of Kulaba”||126 years|
|Ur-Nungal||“the son of Gilgamesh”||30 years|
|Udul-kalama||“the son of Ur-Nungal”||15 years|
What time period was Gilgamesh?
2nd millennium BC
Gilgamesh (Akkadian: 𒀭𒄑𒂆𒈦, romanized: Gilgameš; originally Sumerian: 𒀭𒉋𒂵𒈩, romanized: Bilgames) was a hero in ancient Mesopotamian mythology and the protagonist of the Epic of Gilgamesh, an epic poem written in Akkadian during the late 2nd millennium BC.
What happened in the Uruk period?
Late Uruk period, 3300-3000 BC. Pergamon Museum / Vorderasiatisches Museum. A similar king-priest also appears standing on a ship. It is clear that there were major changes in the political organisation of society in this period.
Where can I find media related to the Uruk period?
Wikimedia Commons has media related to Uruk Period. , where the first chapter covers the period. ^ Cooper, Jerrol S. (1996). The Study of the Ancient Near East in the Twenty-first Century: The William Foxwell Albright Centennial Conference. Eisenbrauns. pp. 10–14. ISBN 9780931464966.
What is pottery of the Uruk period?
Pottery of the Uruk period included undecorated, plain wheel-thrown pots, in contrast to the early Ubaid hand-made painted ceramics, which likely represents a new form of craft specialization.
Why is the central quarter of Uruk so difficult to date?
This is due primarily to the fact that the original stratigraphy of the central quarter of Uruk is ancient and very unclear and the excavations of it were conducted in the 1930s, before many modern dating techniques existed.