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What happens when B cells detect a pathogen?

What happens when B cells detect a pathogen?

B cells are the major cell type involved in the humoral immune response. When a foreign antigen (one coming from a pathogen, for example) is detected, B cells in the body that recognize that antigen will begin to produce antibodies as a means of fighting off the foreign invader.

How are the B cells activated to respond to a pathogen?

During immune responses, B cells are directly activated by invading microorganisms, either by detecting a specific antigen through their BCR or by detecting pathogen-associated molecular patterns (PAMPs) through general pattern recognition receptors (PRRs)4,5,6 (Fig.

What happens when B cells are activated?

B cell activation. When naïve or memory B cells are activated by antigen (and helper T cells—not shown), they proliferate and differentiate into effector cells. The effector cells produce and secrete antibodies with a unique antigen-binding (more…)

How do B cell antibodies lead to the destruction of the pathogen?

The humoral immune system deals with antigens from pathogens that are freely circulating, or outside the infected cells. Antibodies produced by the B cells will bind to antigens, neutralizing them, or causing lysis (dissolution or destruction of cells by a lysin) or phagocytosis.

How do B cells react to antigens?

When a mature B cell encounters antigen that binds to its B cell receptor it becomes activated. It then proliferates and becomes a blasting B cell. These B cells form germinal centres. The germinal centre B cells undergo somatic hypermutation and class switch recombination.

Do B cells interact with pathogens that have infected a cell?

Activated T cells and B cells that are specific to molecular structures on the pathogen proliferate and attack the invading pathogen. Their attack can kill pathogens directly or secrete antibodies that enhance the phagocytosis of pathogens and disrupt the infection.

What is the B cell response?

B cells, unlike the other two classes of lymphocytes, T cells and natural killer cells, express B cell receptors (BCRs) on their cell membrane. BCRs allow the B cell to bind to a foreign antigen, against which it will initiate an antibody response.

What happens when B cells interact with antigens?

Unlike T cells that recognize digested peptides, B cells recognize their cognate antigen in its native form. The B cell receptor used in recognition can also be secreted to bind to antigens and initiate multiple effector functions such as phagocytosis, complement activation, or neutralization of receptors.

What is the function of B cells in the immune response?

B cells create antibodies. These antibodies bind to pathogens or to foreign substances, such as toxins, to neutralize them. For example, an antibody can bind to a virus, which prevents it from entering a normal cell and causing infection. B cells can also recruit other cells to help destroy an infected cell.

How will the products of the B cells affect the bacteria?

B-cells are the type of cells that produce antibodies to fight bacteria and viruses. These antibodies are Y-shaped proteins that are specific to each pathogen and are able to lock onto the surface of an invading cell and mark it for destruction by other immune cells.

What do B cells do quizlet?

Describe the role of B cells in the adaptive immune system. They are mainly involved with antibody production. They can develop into plasma cells, which produce the most antibodies. They can develop into either plasma or memory cells, and are made in the bone marrow.

How do pathogens influence B cell response?

In addition to living inside B cells and manipulating B cell maturation, pathogens can influence B cell responses by modulating the intricate balance of pathways that determines whether a B cell lives or dies ( Fig. 4; Table 1 ). Figure 4: Manipulation of B cell survival and death pathways by pathogens.

Do pathogens interfere with B cell survival and cell death pathways?

Together, these studies highlight that pathogens can interfere with both survival and cell death pathways in B cells. Interestingly, pathogens that use B cells as a niche for survival or dissemination or that divert B cell maturation often increase B cell survival, presumably to facilitate their persistence in the host.

What triggers B cells to activate?

B cell activation. B cells are activated when their B cell receptor (BCR) binds to either soluble or membrane bound antigen. This activates the BCR to form microclusters and trigger downstream signalling cascades.

What is the role of B cells in viral infections?

Indeed, B cells are targeted during certain viral infections, a role that was first discovered through the study of B cell lymphomas. Furthermore, B cells can also provide an infection niche for intracellular bacteria. B cells as viral reservoirs.