## What is Huffman codes explain in detail?

Huffman coding is a lossless data compression algorithm. The idea is to assign variable-length codes to input characters, lengths of the assigned codes are based on the frequencies of corresponding characters. The most frequent character gets the smallest code and the least frequent character gets the largest code.

**When should you not use Huffman coding?**

The worst case for Huffman coding can happen when the probability of a symbol exceeds 2^(−1) = 0.5, making the upper limit of inefficiency unbounded.

### What is need of adaptive Huffman coding and explain it with suitable example?

Adaptive Huffman coding (also called Dynamic Huffman coding) is an adaptive coding technique based on Huffman coding. It permits building the code as the symbols are being transmitted, having no initial knowledge of source distribution, that allows one-pass encoding and adaptation to changing conditions in data.

**What are the applications of Huffman coding?**

Uses of Huffman encoding includes conjunction with cryptography and data compression. Huffman Coding is applied in compression algorithms like DEFLATE (used in PKZIP), JPEG, and MP3. A brute force attack on cryptography means trying every possible key until you find one that produces a “meaningful” result.

#### How do you write Huffman code?

To write Huffman Code for any character, traverse the Huffman Tree from root node to the leaf node of that character. Characters occurring less frequently in the text are assigned the larger code. Characters occurring more frequently in the text are assigned the smaller code.

**What are the advantages of LZW compression over Huffman coding?**

Advantages of LZW over Huffman: LZW requires no prior information about the input data stream. LZW can compress the input stream in one single pass. Another advantage of LZW is its simplicity, allowing fast execution.

## What are the main limitations of Huffman coding?

Disadvantages of Huffman Encoding-

- Lossless data encoding schemes, like Huffman encoding, achieve a lower compression ratio compared to lossy encoding techniques.
- Huffman encoding is a relatively slower process since it uses two passes- one for building the statistical model and another for encoding.

**What is difference between Huffman coding and adaptive Huffman coding?**

If a file (or block) has different letter frequencies in different regions, then adaptive huffman can use shorter codes for frequent letters in each of those regions, whereas static huffman can only use the average for the whole file.

### What are the disadvantages of adaptive Huffman?

When the tree gets longer, the codes get longer and if the field size is exceeded, the program malfunctions. Another drawback of the Huffman coding is that the codes generated contain integer no. of bits which adds redundancy to the data.

**Where Huffman algorithm is used?**

Huffman encoding is widely used in compression formats like GZIP, PKZIP (winzip) and BZIP2 . Huffman encoding still dominates the compression industry since newer arithmetic and range coding schemes are avoided due to their patent issues.

#### What is the time complexity of Huffman coding?

The time complexity of the Huffman algorithm is O(nlogn). Using a heap to store the weight of each tree, each iteration requires O(logn) time to determine the cheapest weight and insert the new weight.

**What is the complexity of Huffman coding?**

Huffman Coding Complexity. The time complexity for encoding each unique character based on its frequency is O (nlog n). Extracting minimum frequency from the priority queue takes place 2* (n-1) times and its complexity is O (log n). Thus the overall complexity is O (nlog n).

## What is adaptive Huffman coding?

A variation called adaptive Huffman coding involves calculating the probabilities dynamically based on recent actual frequencies in the sequence of source symbols, and changing the coding tree structure to match the updated probability estimates.

**How do you write a Huffman code?**

Huffman coding is done with the help of the following steps. Calculate the frequency of each character in the string. Sort the characters in increasing order of the frequency. These are stored in a priority queue Q . Make each unique character as a leaf node. Create an empty node z.

### What is Huffman-Shannon-Fano coding?

The technique for finding this code is sometimes called Huffman–Shannon–Fano coding, since it is optimal like Huffman coding, but alphabetic in weight probability, like Shannon–Fano coding. The Huffman–Shannon–Fano code corresponding to the example is