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What is the drug of choice for diazepam toxicity?

What is the drug of choice for diazepam toxicity?

While the mainstay treatment of acute benzodiazepine toxicity or overdose is supportive care, there is, however, an “antidote” that may be used in limited situations. Flumazenil is a nonspecific competitive antagonist at the benzodiazepine receptor that can reverse benzodiazepine-induced sedation.

Which medication is the antidote for benzodiazepine toxicity?

Medication Summary Flumazenil is a selective competitive antagonist of the gamma-aminobutyric acid (GABA) receptor and is the only available specific antidote for benzodiazepine (BZD) toxicity. It will reverse the effects of BZDs but must be used with caution.

What reverses effects of diazepam?

Symptoms of overdose include confusion, impaired coordination, slow reflexes, coma, and death. A specific treatment to reverse the effects of diazepam does exist. This medicine, called flumazenil, can reverse the effects of diazepam but must be given through an IV at a hospital.

How do you administer flumazenil?

The recommended starting dose is 200 micrograms administered intravenously over 15 seconds. If the required level of consciousness is not obtained within 60 seconds, a further dose of 100 micrograms can be injected and repeated at 60-second intervals, up to a maximum dose of 1000 micrograms.

How should a person respond to an overdose?

How to Respond to an Overdose

  1. ​STEP 1: CALL FOR HELP (CALL 911)
  4. STEP 4: ADMINISTER NALOXONE (if you have access to it)
  6. Do’s and Don’ts in Responding to Opioid Overdose.

What is benzodiazepine toxicity?

Benzodiazepine (BZD) toxicity may result from accidental overdose, intentional overdose, or recreational abuse. Since their introduction in 1960, BZDs have become indicated for a variety of conditions, including seizures, anxiety, alcohol withdrawal, insomnia, agitation, and muscle spasm.

How is flumazenil administered when treating a diazepam overdose?

Management Of Suspected Benzodiazepine Overdose In Adult Patients. For initial management of a known or suspected benzodiazepine overdose, the recommended initial dose of flumazenil injection is 0.2 mg (2 mL) administered intravenously over 30 seconds.

Why is flumazenil not used?

Flumazenil should not be used routinely Seizures and ventricular dysrhythmias can develop, especially if withdrawal is precipitated in benzodiazepine-tolerant individuals or if flumazenil reverses the protective effect of benzodiazepines in patients with unknown or mixed overdose.

What is the reversal agent for benzodiazepines?

Flumazenil. Flumazenil is a short-acting agent that reverses benzodiazepine-induced sedation. Re-sedation may occur due to its short duration of action, therefore additional doses may be necessary. Flumazenil is not useful for barbiturate- or opioid-induced sedation.

How do you reverse an overdose?

How to Reverse an Overdose

  1. Check for signs of an overdose. Slowed or stopped breathing.
  2. Call 911. Call 911.
  3. Give Naloxone. Place tip into one nostril of person’s nose.
  4. Give rescue breaths. Make sure mouth is clear.
  5. Stay until help arrives. Repeat Steps 3 and 4 until help arrives.

What should I do if I overdose on diazepam?

DO NOT use it to treat or manage an actual overdose. If you or someone you are with has an overdose, call your local emergency number (such as 911), or your local poison center can be reached directly by calling the national toll-free Poison Help hotline (1-800-222-1222) from anywhere in the United States. Diazepam can be harmful in large amounts.

When should hydrochlorothiazide be taken twice a day?

Periodic monitoring of electrolytes is recommended, particularly in elderly patients and in patients receiving a high dose. Hydrochlorothiazide doses should be administered in the morning; if patients are on a twice daily dosing schedule, the second dose should be given before 6 PM.

What is the prognosis of a diazepam overdose?

Recovery from a diazepam overdose is very likely. Complications such as pneumonia, muscle damage from lying on a hard surface for a long period of time, or brain damage from lack of oxygen may result in permanent disability.

What are the precautions for diazepam (diazepam)?

Do not use small veins (dorsum of hand or wrist) for IV injection. Reduce dose of opioid analgesics with IV diazepam; dose should be reduced by at least one-third or eliminated. Carefully monitor P, BP, respiration during IV administration.